C++ on the finish of 2022

Programmer's Academy

I have to admit that some earlier years for C++ may really feel a bit “boring” and “steady”. New options, new customary each three years, conferences, conferences… life as standard (other than some further World/Financial system/public Well being occasions…). This yr appears totally different because it appears like a “breakpoint” within the historical past of C++… and who is aware of the place it would lead us.

Let’s take a look at some issues that occurred this yr.

Reviews from earlier years:

Disclaimer: the view introduced right here is mine, subjective, and doesn’t signify the opinion of the ISO C++ committee or corporations I work for.

A Temporary Introduction


In 2022 the world tried to return to “regular,” and concerning C++, this was seen by way of a number of “actual”/stay conferences and stay ISO committee conferences. Compiler distributors are busy finishing help for C++20 and even some C++23 parts. And the ISO committee works on the ultimate elements of C++23 and a few options for C++26.

Nonetheless, across the center of the yr, we began seeing some “cracks” as a couple of influential teams introduced new programming languages. First, we have now Val (led by David Abrahams), then Carbon (supported by Google), after which CppFront (led by Herb Sutter).

The subsequent factor that appears curious is the enhancements and the suggestions loop we are able to see in the neighborhood. For instance, Vittorio Romeo addressed a long-standing debugging efficiency concern for std::transfer, std::ahead, and another small routines. The constructive factor is that distributors comparatively shortly carried out these strategies.

Total, I see the next main developments and subjects in 2022:

  • C++23 function freeze
  • C++20 adoption
  • New languages
  • Suggestions loop and higher instruments

What’s extra, we are able to add one other level: ChatGPT Announcement. Whereas it’s not strictly associated to C++, it could actually massively influence how we write applications, study and even educate. Briefly, ChatGPT proved that it may be a useful assistant for numerous duties, so we’ll see

Learn on to get the whole image.



To set a background, let’s see the principle occasions that occurred:

Date Occasion
7 February ISO C++ Committee assembly Zoom plenary
15 February Visible Studio 2022 17.1
25 March Clang14.0
6 April ACCU, until ninth April
13 April 2022 Increase 1.79: Main launch now obtainable
2 Might Val Introduced at Cpp Now
6 Might GCC 12.1
10 Might MSVC’s STL Completes /std:c++20 (for the second time 🙂
22 July Carbon introduced at C++North
25 July ISO C++ Committee assembly Zoom plenary, C++23 is frozen now
9 August Visible Studio 2022 17.3
19 August GCC 12.2
6 September Clang 15.0
11 September CppCon, until sixteenth Sept
16 September CppFront introduced at CppCon
7 November ISO C++ Committee assembly – Kona Hybrid, until twelfth Nov
8 November Visible Studio 2022 17.4
16 November Assembly C++, until nineteenth Nov
30 November 2022 Chat GTP Introduced
14 December Increase 1.81: Main launch now obtainable
22 December libstdc++: Implement C++20 time zone help in <chrono>

Right here’s a video abstract of this desk:

Compiler Help for C++17


I don’t wish to be boring this time. All main compilers help C++17… there are just a few exceptions, like lacking floating level help for from_chars, to_chars, or points with parallel algorithms.

Please observe that since GCC 11, you get C++17 compilation mode by default, see this text. As of Clang 16 you’ll additionally get gnu++17 by default, see this text

If you wish to study all options of C++17, right here’s my overview:

Compiler Help For C++20


It’s the tip of 2022, and solely MSVC (VS 2022 17.0) has full help for the Customary. GCC 13.0 (virtually launched) has probably the most options, whereas Clang (16.0) is barely behind. The primary options missing or “problematic” are modules, std::format, std::chrono additions, and coroutines. However we’re slowly getting there.

Listed below are a few of the finest options added to the Customary:

  • Modules
  • Coroutines
  • Ideas and Ideas within the Customary Library
  • Ranges
  • operator <=> and its use within the Customary Library, simplified operator rewriting guidelines
  • Textual content formatting – std::format
  • Calendar and timezones
  • jthread, semaphores, extra atomics, obstacles, and extra concurrency stuff
  • consteval and constinit
  • constexpr algorithms, vector, string, reminiscence allocations
  • std::span
  • and extra!

And right here’s the desk with compiler notes for language options:

Compiler lacking options/notes
GCC 11 Solely Modules are within the “partial” state
Clang 14/16 Modules in partial, coroutines in partial, CTAD enhancements lacking
MSVC 16.9 Full help!

Concerning library options:

Compiler Notes
GCC libstdc++, GCC 13 virtually all help!
Clang libc++, as of Clang 14 lacking: jthread, Customary library header models, make_unique_for_overwrite, some atomics lacking,
MSVC STL Full help as of MSVC 16.9, 17.0!

You’ll be able to monitor the standing @cppreference – C++20 help.

If you wish to study all options, you’ll be able to see this nice and tremendous in style weblog publish by Oleksandr Koval:

All C++20 core language options with examples

This yr at C++ Tales, I additionally coated numerous options from the brand new customary:

The C++23 Standing


This yr was notable for the brand new Customary because it acquired into “function freeze” mode. The committee introduced this stage mid-year, after the June ISO assembly.

Some language options and their present help in compilers:

Function GCC Clang MSVC
Make () extra elective for lambdas 11.0 13.0 x
if consteval 12.0 14.0 x
Deducing this x x VS 2022 17.2 (partial)
Multidimensional subscript operator 12.0 x x
#elifdef and #elifndef 12.0 13.0 x
static operator() 13.0 16.0 x
static operator[] 13.0 16.0 x
Help for UTF-8 as a conveyable supply file encoding 13.0 15.0 VS 2015

And one of the thrilling issues that had been added and likewise went viral was the addition of P2718R0 which is a refinement for P2012 “Repair the vary‐primarily based for loop”.

Briefly, you’ll be capable of write:

std::vector<std::string> createStrings();
for (char c : createStrings().at(0)) // <<!
   // some code...

As of C++20, the above for-loop assertion has UB as a result of we entry a short lived object whose lifetime has ended. In C++23, all momentary objects in that loop expression will prolong their lifetime, not simply the primary one.

And library:

Function GCC Clang MSVC
Stacktrace library x x x
std::is_scoped_enum 11.0 12.0 VS 2022 17.0
accommodates() for strings and string views 11.0 12.0 VS 2022 17.0
constexpr for std::elective and std::variant 12.0 13.0 VS 2022 17.1
std::out_ptr(), std::inout_ptr() x x VS 2022 17.0
ranges::starts_with() and ranges::ends_with() x x VS 2022 17.1
DR: std::format() enhancements 13.0 16.0 VS 2022 17.2
ranges zip 13.0 15.0 VS 2022 17.3
Monadic operations for std::elective 12.0 14.0 VS 2022 17.2
<anticipated> 12.0 16.0 VS 2022 17.3
ranges::to x x VS 2022 17.4
Pipe help for user-defined vary adaptors x x VS 2022 17.4
ranges::iota(), ranges::shift_*() x x VS 2022 17.4
views::join_with 13.0 x VS 2022 17.4
views::chunk_* and views::slide 13.0 x VS 2022 17.3
views::chunk_by 13.0 x VS 2022 17.3
<flat_map>, <flat_set> x x x
Formatted output library <print> x x x
Formatting ranges x x x
constexpr for integral overloads of std::to_chars() and std::from_chars() 13.0 16.0 VS 2022 17.4
Customary Library Modules x x VS 2022 17.5*
Monadic operations for std::anticipated x x x

ISO C++ Conferences


This yr we had three ISO conferences:

  • Two digital, single-day, plenary voting: in February and in June.
  • One hybrid in Kona, Hawaii! Going again to regular 🙂

The plan is to finish the draft on C++23, repair points reported by Nationwide Our bodies, after which ship it to the publication within the Spring of subsequent yr. We will count on C++23 to be formally introduced round Autumn 2023.

Listed below are some notes from the assembly:

The subsequent assembly shall be held in Issaquah, WA, USA, ranging from sixth February.

See the whole checklist of conferences: Upcoming Conferences, Previous Conferences : Customary C++



Compiler distributors and library groups have numerous work to meet up with the C++ requirements.

Let’s take a look at three main compilers: MSVC, GCC, and Clang.

Visible Studio


The MSVC group has rewritten their compiler infrastructure, and so they can comparatively shortly push new options. They even introduced the C++20 help twice!

MSVC’s STL Completes /std:c++20 – C++ Workforce Weblog

This announcement was primarily because of some further modifications and DR Customary fixes for <format>, <chrono>, and <ranges>. As soon as they had been accomplished, the implementation is now steady once more.

Another MSVC information and blogs articles:

And right here’s a documentation web page in regards to the conformance with C++ Requirements (together with C++20):
Microsoft C++ language conformance desk

Moreover, you’ll be able to monitor the progress of the Customary Library implementation on Github: Changelog · Microsoft/STL Wiki.



Present steady model GCC 12.2 from August GCC 12 Launch Sequence.

You can too see the preview of the upcoming GCC 13: GCC 13 Launch Sequence — Adjustments, New Options, and Fixes – GNU Venture.

Language and the Library help notes:

And a few information about GCC:



Present steady model: 15.0.6 from late November, Welcome to Clang’s documentation! — Clang 15.0.0 documentation.

And likewise, you’ll be able to preview Clang 16: Clang 16.0.0git (In-Progress) Launch Notes — Clang 16.0.0git documentation.

Debugging efficiency


Let’s develop the subject on efficiency and the suggestions loops:

Right here’s the article by Vitorio Romeo: the unhappy state of debug efficiency in c++ – and stuck in Enhancing the State of Debug Efficiency in C++ – C++ Workforce Weblog

Briefly, due to the msvc::intrinsic attribute, the group managed to annotate a few move-related capabilities, and in some instances, the code technology yields 226 directions in 17.4 whereas 17.5 provides solely 106! From launch notes: std::transfer, std::ahead, std::move_if_noexcept, and std::forward_like will no longer produce operate calls in generated code, even in debug mode. That is to keep away from named casts inflicting pointless overhead in debug builds. /permissive- or a flag that suggests it (e.g. /std:c++20 or std:c++newest) is required.

Moreover, we have now two bugs reported by Vittorio: 104719 – Use of `std::transfer` in libstdc++ results in worsened debug efficiency and Use of `std::transfer` in libc++ results in worsened debug efficiency · Situation #53689 · llvm/llvm-project – they appears to be fastened in GCC and Clang, and so they can now fold easy directions.

Total, there’s loads to do on the debugging aspect of C++, however as you’ll be able to see, the group works nicely, tries to take heed to the wants, and distributors enhance their implementations.

C++ successor languages & Safety


The ISO C++ course of could also be sluggish in some instances and inefficient. Plus, there are many “holy” wars within the committee, particularly about issues like “no breaking ABI”. In some instances, we all know a number of points within the Customary, and we all know the best way to repair them… however as a result of we can not break ABI, nothing could be accomplished (other than including some hacky workaround). Some teams, for instance, from the Google group, had been a bit discouraged by this truth and created some new approaches to C++.

There’s an excellent article: The 12 months of C++ Successor Languages By Lucian Radu Teodorescu, the place you’ll be able to examine approaches and brief descriptions for every language.

Within the article, we are able to learn that regardless of being criticized (loads!), C++ has constantly been within the prime 4 programming languages for the previous 30 years. Critics argue that the language is simply too massive and sophisticated, with options that needs to be eliminated and with too many and never sufficient options on the similar time. These criticisms have led to the creation of a number of programming languages that purpose to succeed C++ because the dominant system programming language. In 2022, three languages had been introduced at main C++ conferences: Val, Carbon, and CppFront. This text supplies a essential perspective on these languages and their potential as C++ successors.


Introduced and led by Dave Abrahams and Dimitri Racordon, closely influenced by Swift, appears coherent and straightforward to make use of.

See https://www.val-lang.dev/


Backed by Google (and, based on Chandler, additionally by Adobe), “seems like a C++ cleanup challenge.”

See carbon-language @Github

and extra hyperlinks:


Led by Herb Sutter, is an try and have a greater syntax and higher defaults… however nonetheless compile to C++.

My view

It’s at all times good to have competitors. C++ may profit from different languages and alternate options from Carbon or Rust.

What’s extra Safety “theme” appears to be seen this yr, and we have now studies like:



I requested the bot, but it surely didn’t inform me if it was written in C++. I assume some elements may very well be accomplished in C++, however because it’s an unlimited system, many applied sciences is likely to be used there.

In a C++Weekly video: C++ Weekly – Ep 354 – Can AI And ChatGPT Substitute C++ Programmers? – YouTube, Jason Turner experiments with the bot. Generally, it creates legitimate responses, however you continue to have to concentrate to particulars. This chatbot is usually a actually useful coding assistant.

I additionally learn a wonderful electronic mail from Fahim ul Haq founding father of Educative:

AI like ChatGPT will change the panorama of software program growth — however not in the way in which that many worry. As a software program engineer and developer studying advocate, I consider ChatGPT might help us make higher software program, however it could actually’t exchange developer jobs.

Fahim additionally suggests the next concepts in regards to the chatbot:

“ChatGPT goes to make coding extra productive and bug-free. Because it accommodates extra advanced necessities, we are able to look ahead to it serving to remove grunt work and speed up productiveness and testing. “

As assistants corresponding to ChatGPT evolve, most of the tedious duties which have occupied builders might go away within the subsequent decade, together with: automating unit assessments, producing take a look at instances primarily based on parameters, analyzing code to counsel safety finest practices, and automating QA .

To not point out the training and educating capabilities. Think about a pleasant “tutor bot for C++”. You’ll be able to study a programming language or ask about any language function similar to you ask your professional colleague at work.

I believe we’ll see a number of inspiring instruments within the subsequent yr…. perhaps even one thing strictly for C++; who is aware of 🙂

Conferences & On-line Occasions


Have a look at this hyperlink to ISO C++ web page with all registered conferences worldwide: Conferences Worldwide, C++FAQ.

Some highlights, assets, and keynote movies:

Assembly C++ On-line


I’m impressed with Jens Weller, who created a world on-line meetup:

Assembly C++ on-line (Düsseldorf, Deutschland) | Meetup

For instance, take a look at some latest AMAs:



A couple of chosen books that arrived in 2022 (or late 2021):

Disclaimer: Hyperlinks within the desk are affiliate hyperlinks to Amazon.

See my evaluation of “Embracing Fashionable C++”: Embracing Fashionable C++ Safely, E-book Overview – C++ Tales

And there’s additionally my e-book: “C++ Initialization Story”, launched in mid 2022 and accomplished in December:

Programmer's Academy
C++ Initialization Story @Leanpub

Get C++ Initialization Story solely for 9.99$ (not 15.99$), solely until 1st January



C++ appears to have steady development in numerous programming languages’ “recognition” charts this yr.

Take a look:

Programmer's Academy

The picture relies on knowledge from Stack Overflow survey and Tiobe Index.

In accordance with Github, Octoverse C++ is in sixth place (final yr it was within the seventh place); see right here.

What’s extra, there was additionally an attention-grabbing article from early November: The pool of proficient C++ builders is operating dry

From the article:

Anthony Peacock, previously a quant at each Citi and Citadel mentioned “it’s unimaginable to seek out folks with a extremely excessive stage of C++ abilities, which is strictly what each buying and selling firm needs.”

Even when Carbon, Rust or CppFront is simply across the nook… (or not)… there shall be nonetheless a ton of C++ code to take care of. What’s extra, a number of areas like finance will nonetheless use C++ for his or her low-level infrastructure.

Right here’s the associated dialogue at Reddit: The pool of proficient C++ builders is operating dry : cpp with over 350 feedback!

Your Enter & Survey


On twelfth December, I began my annual survey about the usage of C++ within the final yr. I acquired 649 votes. Thanks!

Let’s make some summaries and tables out of your solutions 🙂

C++ Customary Used

Each day, which C++ Customary do you utilize?

Reply 2022 2021 2020 2019 2018
Pre C++11 10.8% 7.5% 8.4% 10.3% 20%
C++11 27.6% 25.6% 25.5% 30.3% 41%
C++14 28.7% 28% 28.6% 35% 42%
C++17 61.8% 66.1% 64.4% 62.4% 44%
C++20 42.2% 28.8% 20.4% 9.2% n/a

(The numbers for the above don’t sum to 100%)

C++ Use 2022 vs 2021

C++20 will get far more makes use of, whereas C++11/14 stabilizes at round 28%.

Expertise with C++17

What’s your expertise with C++17?

Reply 2022 2021 2020 2019
experimenting with C++17 29.7% 28.9% 34.9% 39.4%
solely learn primary info 10.2% 11.4% 9.4% 13.4%
already utilizing in manufacturing 57.6% 56.6% 52.2% 41.6%
don’t know any of its function 1.8% <1% 1.6% 2.6%

Expertise with C++20

What’s your expertise with C++20?

Reply 2022 2021 2020 2019
experimenting with C++20 37.8% 35.7% 35.6% 29.3%
solely learn primary info 36.2% 44.1% 50.8% 59.8%
already utilizing in manufacturing 17.6% 12.8% 6.8% n/a
don’t know any of its function 7.7% 6% 5.2% 9.1%

Compilers Used

What compiler do you utilize?

Reply 2022 2021 2020 2019
GCC 70.9% 76% 70.3% 75.6%
Clang 46.1% 51.8% 49.6% 58.7%
MSVC 54.7% 54.1% 58.5% 56.3%
Intel Compiler 2.5% 2.3% 2.8% 3.1%
C++ Builder 1.1% 2.2% 3% 1.2%

(The numbers for the above don’t sum to 100%)

What IDE do you utilize for C++ initiatives

Reply 2022 2021
Visible Studio 48.2% 48.8%
Visible Studio Code 49.3% 47.1%
CLion 19.3% 18.5%
C++ Builder IDE 1.5% 2%
Eclipse 6.2% 5.8%
Vim/Emacs 24% 26.9%
QT Creator 14.6% 15.7%
Notepad++ 9.1% 7.4%
XCode 6.8% 6.1%

What further instruments do you utilize?

Reply 2022 2021 2020 2019
Debugger 74.3% 80.8% 77% 83.6%
Sanitizers 36.8% 38.9% 31.9% 40.4%
Static Code Evaluation 57.2% 58.7% 60.9% 55.7%
Profilers 43% 49.1% 53.4% 56.8%
Clang Format 45% 49.4% 43.3% 49.3%
CMake 64.9% 67.3% 62.3% 66%
Bundle Managers 25.3% 26.2% 23.2% 21.4%

(The numbers for the above don’t sum to 100%)

Smartest thing that occurred in 2022:

Solutions from this open query, primarily based on recognition (I attempted to group comparable issues), no particular order:

  • C++ language updates and requirements: You talked about updates to the C++ language, corresponding to the discharge of C++20 and C++23, in addition to the adoption of latest options and proposals.
  • New languages: Carbon / Cpp2 / Val, and triggering the dialogue on the subsequent steps in the neighborhood.
  • Conferences and occasions: as standard, conferences corresponding to CppCon and Assembly C++ acquired many votes.
  • Books and assets: “A Tour of C++”, “Embracing Fashionable C++ Safely,” and “Klaus Iglberger’s e-book on Software program Design” had been fairly in style among the many solutions.
  • YouTube channels: particularly Jason’s Turner, Cppcon Channel YouTube, or Assembly C++ Youtube
  • Private initiatives and studying: Lots of you talked about engaged on private initiatives or studying extra about C++ to enhance your abilities and understanding of the language.
  • Compiler help: the provision of compiler help for brand spanking new C++ requirements as a necessary growth within the C++ group.
  • C++’s recognition: responses talked about TIOBE and different rankings

Moreover, it’s nice to listen to such information like

  • “Transfer in my firm to C++20”
  • “private improve from c++14 to c++20”
  • “I simply acquired a job in C++ once more and I’m fairly proud of it”

Or: “We’re nonetheless alive ;-)” 🙂

There have been additionally many constructive opinions in regards to the weblog, my books and the publication! Thanks!

I’m attending to get pleasure from your C++ Initialization e-book

I discovered your c++ tales weblog. It was fairly helpful for my interview preparations

Different surveys:

My survey will not be crucial 🙂 Take a look at different bigger surveys run by these corporations:



Thanks for studying as much as this second 🙂

C++ is at a crossroads at this time: on one aspect, it’s in actually fine condition, with a number of new options, compiler help, and funky instruments (even better-debugging efficiency!). However on the similar time, many specialists wrestle to make language inherently safer and repair some long-standing points ( breaking ABI dialogue). That’s why some specialists attempt to begin from one thing contemporary and enhance C++ by creating a brand new competitors. These new languages straight compile to C++ (as CppFront), or have sturdy interoperability with C++ (like Carbon). So perhaps sooner or later, you’ll be writing in a brilliant protected C++2 language and nonetheless have some legacy information in good outdated fashionable C++ in the identical initiatives. I hope “pleasant competitors” will push C++ to new directories and get us higher options and safer code.

What’s extra ChatGPT merges, so who know if we’ll nonetheless be coding subsequent yr 🙂

To summarize, my large issues for 2022:

  • C++20 adoption
  • C++23 ongoing
  • New languages and new alternatives to push C++ additional
  • Neighborhood discussions and suggestions loops

Greatest needs!

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Your Flip

  • What do you consider C++ in 2022?
  • What was probably the most essential occasion/information for you?
  • Did I miss one thing?

Be part of the dialogue under the article.

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