What is Encapsulation in C++

The term “encapsulation” is to make sure that “sensitive” data is hidden from the user. In oop, encapsulation defined as the combination of information with the functions that control it. In general, encapsulation is the process of packing similar code in one place. C ++ allows you to group data members and functions that work together within a single class.

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Encapsulation syntax in C ++:

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For example:
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In the above program, the variable x is private. This variable can only be accessed and manipulated using the get () and set () functions that exist within the class. So here we can say that the variable x and the get () and set () functions are linked. This is nothing more than encapsulation.

Another Example:
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The length and width of the member variables are encapsulated within the Rectangle class. Because we declare them private, we cannot access these variables directly from outside the class. So I used the “setDimension” and “getArea” functions to access them.

Encapsulation Benefits:

Encapsulated classes have many benefits.

  • Encapsulated classes reduce complexity.
  • Help protect your data. Once the account is encapsulated, the customer cannot change the account balance.
  • Encapsulated classes can be easily modified. Access modifiers (public, private, protected) allow you to change the privacy of your data according to your requirements without changing the entire program. For example, if a data member is declared private and you want it to be directly accessible from anywhere outside the class, just replace the private specifier with public.

Role of access specifiers in encapsulation:

Access specifiers play an important role in the implementation of encapsulation in C ++. The encapsulation implementation process can be subdivided into two steps.

  1. The data member must be labeled private with the private access specifier.
  2. Member functions that operate on data members must be labeled public using the public access specifier.
  3. The main advantage of encapsulation is data security. This protects your data from unauthorized users inferred from the real issues above.

How Encapsulation is achieved in the class?

  • Maintain the privacy of all data members.
  • Create a public set and get function for each data member, so that the set function sets the value of the data member and the get function gets the value of the data member.

Advantage of Encapsulation in C++:

  • The main advantage of using encapsulation is that it protects your data from other methods. If you keep your data private, this data will only be used inside the class, but will not be accessible outside the class.
  • The concept of data encapsulation can be applied in the marketing and finance sectors where security demands are high and access to data to different departments is restricted.

Dis-Advantage of Encapsulation in C++:

  • You cannot access private dates outside of class.


Encapsulation is one of the most important features of object-oriented programming because it provides a way to hide data. This makes your data more secure and protects it from malicious use. Encapsulation helps abstraction, so you can expose only the interfaces you need to your end users, and hide other details accordingly.


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