Construct an inside SaaS service with value and utilization monitoring for basis fashions on Amazon Bedrock

Enterprises are in search of to rapidly unlock the potential of generative AI by offering entry to basis fashions (FMs) to completely different strains of enterprise (LOBs). IT groups are chargeable for serving to the LOB innovate with pace and agility whereas offering centralized governance and observability. For instance, they could want to trace the utilization of FMs throughout groups, chargeback prices and supply visibility to the related value heart within the LOB. Moreover, they could want to control entry to completely different fashions per staff. For instance, if solely particular FMs could also be accredited to be used.

Amazon Bedrock is a totally managed service that provides a selection of high-performing basis fashions from main AI firms like AI21 Labs, Anthropic, Cohere, Meta, Stability AI, and Amazon through a single API, together with a broad set of capabilities to construct generative AI functions with safety, privateness, and accountable AI. As a result of Amazon Bedrock is serverless, you don’t need to handle any infrastructure, and you may securely combine and deploy generative AI capabilities into your functions utilizing the AWS providers you’re already conversant in.

A software program as a service (SaaS) layer for basis fashions can present a easy and constant interface for end-users, whereas sustaining centralized governance of entry and consumption. API gateways can present unfastened coupling between mannequin shoppers and the mannequin endpoint service, and suppleness to adapt to altering mannequin, architectures, and invocation strategies.

On this publish, we present you learn how to construct an inside SaaS layer to entry basis fashions with Amazon Bedrock in a multi-tenant (staff) structure. We particularly concentrate on utilization and price monitoring per tenant and likewise controls equivalent to utilization throttling per tenant. We describe how the answer and Amazon Bedrock consumption plans map to the overall SaaS journey framework. The code for the answer and an AWS Cloud Growth Equipment (AWS CDK) template is on the market within the GitHub repository.


An AI platform administrator wants to supply standardized and quick access to FMs to a number of growth groups.

The next are among the challenges to supply ruled entry to basis fashions:

  • Value and utilization monitoring – Observe and audit particular person tenant prices and utilization of basis fashions, and supply chargeback prices to particular value facilities
  • Finances and utilization controls – Handle API quota, funds, and utilization limits for the permitted use of basis fashions over an outlined frequency per tenant
  • Entry management and mannequin governance – Outline entry controls for particular permit listed fashions per tenant
  • Multi-tenant standardized API – Present constant entry to basis fashions with OpenAPI requirements
  • Centralized administration of API – Present a single layer to handle API keys for accessing fashions
  • Mannequin variations and updates – Deal with new and up to date mannequin model rollouts

Answer overview

On this answer, we confer with a multi-tenant method. A tenant right here can vary from a person consumer, a selected undertaking, staff, and even a whole division. As we talk about the method, we use the time period staff, as a result of it’s the commonest. We use API keys to limit and monitor API entry for groups. Every staff is assigned an API key for entry to the FMs. There will be completely different consumer authentication and authorization mechanisms deployed in a corporation. For simplicity, we don’t embody these on this answer. You may additionally combine current id suppliers with this answer.

The next diagram summarizes the answer structure and key elements. Groups (tenants) assigned to separate value facilities eat Amazon Bedrock FMs through an API service. To trace consumption and price per staff, the answer logs information for every particular person invocation, together with the mannequin invoked, variety of tokens for textual content technology fashions, and picture dimensions for multi-modal fashions. As well as, it aggregates the invocations per mannequin and prices by every staff.

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You’ll be able to deploy the answer in your personal account utilizing the AWS CDK. AWS CDK is an open supply software program growth framework to mannequin and provision your cloud software sources utilizing acquainted programming languages. The AWS CDK code is on the market within the GitHub repository.

Within the following sections, we talk about the important thing elements of the answer in additional element.

Capturing basis mannequin utilization per staff

The workflow to seize FM utilization per staff consists of the next steps (as numbered within the previous diagram):

  1. A staff’s software sends a POST request to Amazon API Gateway with the mannequin to be invoked within the model_id question parameter and the consumer immediate within the request physique.
  2. API Gateway routes the request to an AWS Lambda perform (bedrock_invoke_model) that’s chargeable for logging staff utilization data in Amazon CloudWatch and invoking the Amazon Bedrock mannequin.
  3. Amazon Bedrock supplies a VPC endpoint powered by AWS PrivateLink. On this answer, the Lambda perform sends the request to Amazon Bedrock utilizing PrivateLink to determine a personal connection between the VPC in your account and the Amazon Bedrock service account. To study extra about PrivateLink, see Use AWS PrivateLink to arrange personal entry to Amazon Bedrock.
  4. After the Amazon Bedrock invocation, Amazon CloudTrail generates a CloudTrail occasion.
  5. If the Amazon Bedrock name is profitable, the Lambda perform logs the next data relying on the kind of invoked mannequin and returns the generated response to the appliance:
    • team_id – The distinctive identifier for the staff issuing the request.
    • requestId – The distinctive identifier of the request.
    • model_id – The ID of the mannequin to be invoked.
    • inputTokens – The variety of tokens despatched to the mannequin as a part of the immediate (for textual content technology and embeddings fashions).
    • outputTokens – The utmost variety of tokens to be generated by the mannequin (for textual content technology fashions).
    • peak – The peak of the requested picture (for multi-modal fashions and multi-modal embeddings fashions).
    • width – The width of the requested picture (for multi-modal fashions solely).
    • steps – The steps requested (for Stability AI fashions).

Monitoring prices per staff

A distinct movement aggregates the utilization data, then calculates and saves the on-demand prices per staff every day. By having a separate movement, we be sure that value monitoring doesn’t affect the latency and throughput of the mannequin invocation movement. The workflow steps are as follows:

  1. An Amazon EventBridge rule triggers a Lambda perform (bedrock_cost_tracking) every day.
  2. The Lambda perform will get the utilization data from CloudWatch for the day gone by, calculates the related prices, and shops the information aggregated by team_id and model_id in Amazon Easy Storage Service (Amazon S3) in CSV format.

To question and visualize the information saved in Amazon S3, you’ve completely different choices, together with S3 Choose, and Amazon Athena and Amazon QuickSight.

Controlling utilization per staff

A utilization plan specifies who can entry a number of deployed APIs and optionally units the goal request price to start out throttling requests. The plan makes use of API keys to establish API shoppers who can entry the related API for every key. You should use API Gateway utilization plans to throttle requests that exceed predefined thresholds. You can too use API keys and quota limits, which allow you to set the utmost variety of requests per API key every staff is permitted to problem inside a specified time interval. That is along with Amazon Bedrock service quotas which might be assigned solely on the account degree.


Earlier than you deploy the answer, be sure you have the next:

Deploy the AWS CDK stack

Observe the directions within the README file of the GitHub repository to configure and deploy the AWS CDK stack.

The stack deploys the next sources:

  • Non-public networking setting (VPC, personal subnets, safety group)
  • IAM function for controlling mannequin entry
  • Lambda layers for the mandatory Python modules
  • Lambda perform invoke_model
  • Lambda perform list_foundation_models
  • Lambda perform cost_tracking
  • Relaxation API (API Gateway)
  • API Gateway utilization plan
  • API key related to the utilization plan

Onboard a brand new staff

For offering entry to new groups, you possibly can both share the identical API key throughout completely different groups and monitor the mannequin consumptions by offering a distinct team_id for the API invocation, or create devoted API keys used for accessing Amazon Bedrock sources by following the directions supplied within the README.

The stack deploys the next sources:

  • API Gateway utilization plan related to the beforehand created REST API
  • API key related to the utilization plan for the brand new staff, with reserved throttling and burst configurations for the API

For extra details about API Gateway throttling and burst configurations, confer with Throttle API requests for higher throughput.

After you deploy the stack, you possibly can see that the brand new API key for team-2 is created as nicely.

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Configure mannequin entry management

The platform administrator can permit entry to particular basis fashions by modifying the IAM coverage related to the Lambda perform invoke_model. The

IAM permissions are outlined within the file setup/stack_constructs/ See the next code:

self.bedrock_policy = iam.Coverage(




Invoke the service

After you’ve deployed the answer, you possibly can invoke the service instantly out of your code. The next

is an instance in Python for consuming the invoke_model API for textual content technology by a POST request:


model_id = "amazon.titan-text-express-v1" #the mannequin id for the Amazon Titan Specific mannequin
model_kwargs = { # inference configuration
    "maxTokenCount": 4096,
    "temperature": 0.2

immediate = "What's Amazon Bedrock?"

response = requests.publish(
    json={"inputs": immediate, "parameters": model_kwargs},
        "x-api-key": api_key, #key for querying the API
        "team_id": team_id #distinctive tenant identifier 

textual content = response.json()[0]["generated_text"]

print(textual content)

Output: Amazon Bedrock is an inside expertise platform developed by Amazon to run and function lots of their providers and merchandise. Some key issues about Bedrock …

The next is one other instance in Python for consuming the invoke_model API for embeddings technology by a POST request:

model_id = "amazon.titan-embed-text-v1" #the mannequin id for the Amazon Titan Embeddings Textual content mannequin

immediate = "What's Amazon Bedrock?"

response = requests.publish(
    json={"inputs": immediate, "parameters": model_kwargs},
        "x-api-key": api_key, #key for querying the API
        "team_id": team_id #distinctive tenant identifier,
	"embeddings": "true" #boolean worth for the embeddings mannequin 

textual content = response.json()[0]["embedding"]

Output: 0.91796875, 0.45117188, 0.52734375, -0.18652344, 0.06982422, 0.65234375, -0.13085938, 0.056884766, 0.092285156, 0.06982422, 1.03125, 0.8515625, 0.16308594, 0.079589844, -0.033935547, 0.796875, -0.15429688, -0.29882812, -0.25585938, 0.45703125, 0.044921875, 0.34570312 …

Entry denied to basis fashions

The next is an instance in Python for consuming the invoke_model API for textual content technology by a POST request with an entry denied response:

model_id = " anthropic.claude-v1" #the mannequin id for Anthropic Claude V1 mannequin
model_kwargs = { # inference configuration
    "maxTokenCount": 4096,
    "temperature": 0.2

immediate = "What's Amazon Bedrock?"

response = requests.publish(
    json={"inputs": immediate, "parameters": model_kwargs},
        "x-api-key": api_key, #key for querying the API
        "team_id": team_id #distinctive tenant identifier 

print(response.textual content)

<Response [500]> “Traceback (most up-to-date name final):n File ”/var/job/”, line 213, in lambda_handlern response = _invoke_text(bedrock_client, model_id, physique, model_kwargs)n File ”/var/job/”, line 146, in _invoke_textn increase en File ”/var/job/”, line 131, in _invoke_textn response = bedrock_client.invoke_model(n File ”/choose/python/botocore/”, line 535, in _api_calln return self._make_api_call(operation_name, kwargs)n File ”/choose/python/botocore/”, line 980, in _make_api_calln increase error_class(parsed_response, operation_name)nbotocore.errorfactory.AccessDeniedException: An error occurred (AccessDeniedException) when calling the InvokeModel operation: Your account just isn’t approved to invoke this API operation.n”

Value estimation instance

When invoking Amazon Bedrock fashions with on-demand pricing, the overall value is calculated because the sum of the enter and output prices. Enter prices are based mostly on the variety of enter tokens despatched to the mannequin, and output prices are based mostly on the tokens generated. The costs are per 1,000 enter tokens and per 1,000 output tokens. For extra particulars and particular mannequin costs, confer with Amazon Bedrock Pricing.

Let’s take a look at an instance the place two groups, team1 and team2, entry Amazon Bedrock by the answer on this publish. The utilization and price information saved in Amazon S3 in a single day is proven within the following desk.

The columns input_tokens and output_tokens retailer the overall enter and output tokens throughout mannequin invocations per mannequin and per staff, respectively, for a given day.

The columns input_cost and output_cost retailer the respective prices per mannequin and per staff. These are calculated utilizing the next formulation:

input_cost = input_token_count * model_pricing["input_cost"] / 1000
output_cost = output_token_count * model_pricing["output_cost"] / 1000

team_id model_id input_tokens output_tokens invocations input_cost output_cost
Team1 amazon.titan-tg1-large 24000 2473 1000 0.0072 0.00099
Team1 anthropic.claude-v2 2448 4800 24 0.02698 0.15686
Team2 amazon.titan-tg1-large 35000 52500 350 0.0105 0.021
Team2 ai21.j2-grande-instruct 4590 9000 45 0.05738 0.1125
Team2 anthropic.claude-v2 1080 4400 20 0.0119 0.14379

Finish-to-end view of a practical multi-tenant serverless SaaS setting

Let’s perceive what an end-to-end practical multi-tenant serverless SaaS setting would possibly appear to be. The next is a reference structure diagram.

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This structure diagram is a zoomed-out model of the earlier structure diagram defined earlier within the publish, the place the earlier structure diagram explains the main points of one of many microservices talked about (foundational mannequin service). This diagram explains that, aside from foundational mannequin service, that you must produce other elements as nicely in your multi-tenant SaaS platform to implement a practical and scalable platform.

Let’s undergo the main points of the structure.

Tenant functions

The tenant functions are the entrance finish functions that work together with the setting. Right here, we present a number of tenants accessing from completely different native or AWS environments. The entrance finish functions will be prolonged to incorporate a registration web page for brand new tenants to register themselves and an admin console for directors of the SaaS service layer. If the tenant functions require a customized logic to be carried out that wants interplay with the SaaS setting, they’ll implement the specs of the appliance adaptor microservice. Instance eventualities might be including customized authorization logic whereas respecting the authorization specs of the SaaS setting.

Shared providers

The next are shared providers:

  • Tenant and consumer administration providers –These providers are chargeable for registering and managing the tenants. They supply the cross-cutting performance that’s separate from software providers and shared throughout the entire tenants.
  • Basis mannequin service –The answer structure diagram defined originally of this publish represents this microservice, the place the interplay from API Gateway to Lambda capabilities is going on throughout the scope of this microservice. All tenants use this microservice to invoke the foundations fashions from Anthropic, AI21, Cohere, Stability, Meta, and Amazon, in addition to fine-tuned fashions. It additionally captures the knowledge wanted for utilization monitoring in CloudWatch logs.
  • Value monitoring service –This service tracks the associated fee and utilization for every tenant. This microservice runs on a schedule to question the CloudWatch logs and output the aggregated utilization monitoring and inferred value to the information storage. The associated fee monitoring service will be prolonged to construct additional stories and visualization.

Utility adaptor service

This service presents a set of specs and APIs {that a} tenant might implement with a purpose to combine their customized logic to the SaaS setting. Primarily based on how a lot customized integration is required, this part will be non-compulsory for tenants.

Multi-tenant information retailer

The shared providers retailer their information in an information retailer that may be a single shared Amazon DynamoDB desk with a tenant partitioning key that associates DynamoDB gadgets with particular person tenants. The associated fee monitoring shared service outputs the aggregated utilization and price monitoring information to Amazon S3. Primarily based on the use case, there will be an application-specific information retailer as nicely.

A multi-tenant SaaS setting can have much more elements. For extra data, confer with Constructing a Multi-Tenant SaaS Answer Utilizing AWS Serverless Companies.

Help for a number of deployment fashions

SaaS frameworks sometimes define two deployment fashions: pool and silo. For the pool mannequin, all tenants entry FMs from a shared setting with widespread storage and compute infrastructure. Within the silo mannequin, every tenant has its personal set of devoted sources. You’ll be able to examine isolation fashions within the SaaS Tenant Isolation Methods whitepaper.

The proposed answer will be adopted for each SaaS deployment fashions. Within the pool method, a centralized AWS setting hosts the API, storage, and compute sources. In silo mode, every staff accesses APIs, storage, and compute sources in a devoted AWS setting.

The answer additionally suits with the obtainable consumption plans supplied by Amazon Bedrock. AWS supplies a selection of two consumptions plan for inference:

  • On-Demand – This mode lets you use basis fashions on a pay-as-you-go foundation with out having to make any time-based time period commitments
  • Provisioned Throughput – This mode lets you provision adequate throughput to satisfy your software’s efficiency necessities in alternate for a time-based time period dedication

For extra details about these choices, confer with Amazon Bedrock Pricing.

The serverless SaaS reference answer described on this publish can apply the Amazon Bedrock consumption plans to supply fundamental and premium tiering choices to end-users. Fundamental might embody On-Demand or Provisioned Throughput consumption of Amazon Bedrock and will embody particular utilization and funds limits. Tenant limits might be enabled by throttling requests based mostly on requests, token sizes, or funds allocation. Premium tier tenants might have their very own devoted sources with provisioned throughput consumption of Amazon Bedrock. These tenants would sometimes be related to manufacturing workloads that require excessive throughput and low latency entry to Amazon Bedrock FMs.


On this publish, we mentioned learn how to construct an inside SaaS platform to entry basis fashions with Amazon Bedrock in a multi-tenant setup with a concentrate on monitoring prices and utilization, and throttling limits for every tenant. Extra subjects to discover embody integrating current authentication and authorization options within the group, enhancing the API layer to incorporate net sockets for bi-directional shopper server interactions, including content material filtering and different governance guardrails, designing a number of deployment tiers, integrating different microservices within the SaaS structure, and plenty of extra.

All the code for this answer is on the market within the GitHub repository.

For extra details about SaaS-based frameworks, confer with SaaS Journey Framework: Constructing a New SaaS Answer on AWS.

In regards to the Authors

Programmer's AcademyHasan Poonawala is a Senior AI/ML Specialist Options Architect at AWS, working with Healthcare and Life Sciences prospects. Hasan helps design, deploy and scale Generative AI and Machine studying functions on AWS. He has over 15 years of mixed work expertise in machine studying, software program growth and information science on the cloud. In his spare time, Hasan likes to discover nature and spend time with family and friends.

Programmer's AcademyAnastasia Tzeveleka is a Senior AI/ML Specialist Options Architect at AWS. As a part of her work, she helps prospects throughout EMEA construct basis fashions and create scalable generative AI and machine studying options utilizing AWS providers.

Programmer's AcademyBruno Pistone is a Generative AI and ML Specialist Options Architect for AWS based mostly in Milan. He works with giant prospects serving to them to deeply perceive their technical wants and design AI and Machine Studying options that make one of the best use of the AWS Cloud and the Amazon Machine Studying stack. His experience embody: Machine Studying finish to finish, Machine Studying Industrialization, and Generative AI. He enjoys spending time along with his associates and exploring new locations, in addition to travelling to new locations.

Programmer's AcademyVikesh Pandey is a Generative AI/ML Options architect, specialising in monetary providers the place he helps monetary prospects construct and scale Generative AI/ML platforms and answer which scales to tons of to even 1000’s of customers. In his spare time, Vikesh likes to jot down on numerous weblog boards and construct legos along with his child.

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