Introduction to C Language

What is C?

C is a procedural programming language. First developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1972. Developed primarily as a systems programming language for creating operating systems. Key features of the C language include low-level memory access, a simple keyword set, and clean styling. These characteristics make the C language suitable for system programming, such as operating system development and compilers.

Key Components of C Language:

  • This programming language was created so that Unix could write with it.
  • This language has B as its direct mother tongue developed in the 1970s.
  • ANSI (American National Standards Institute) officially established this language as the official programming language in 1988.
  • When it comes to system-friendly programming languages, there is no better choice than C.
  • The latest generation software is created using the C language.
  • The main reason for using C as a system-specific programming language is its speed and efficiency, which is close to that of assembly language.
  • Program c has a .c extension.

Characteristics of C Language:

The main features of the C language are as follows.

  • Simplified keyword set: Use a simplified, easy-to-understand and rich keyword set that meets one of the most important characteristics of this language.
  • Clean style: the flow of the code is clean because the language focuses on organizing your code.
  • Pointer Mechanism: The efficient use of pointer and addressing mechanisms in the C language has unique characteristics that differentiate it from all other programming languages.
  • Efficient compiler design language: Light, rich and diverse set of commands and features, the ability to work very well on hardware, low memory usage, and so on. make it ideal for developing compiler layouts.
  • This is a very robust language with a rich set of built-in operators and functions.
  • C-encoded programs are fast and efficient.
  • A highly portable language. This means that programs written in C can easily be run on a variety of other machines with little change.
  • There is a large collection of libraries or built-in functions. It also offers the ability to customize or create your own functions for inclusion in the C library collection.
  • It is a very extensible language.

Basic Commands of C Programming Language:

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Features of C Programming Language:

Key features of the C language include low-level memory access, a simple keyword set, and clean styling. These characteristics make the C language suitable for system programming, such as operating system development and compilers.

1. Procedural language:

In a procedural language like C, predefined instructions are executed step by step. A C program can contain multiple functions to accomplish a particular task. Programming beginners will think that this is the only way a particular programming language works. There are also other programming paradigms in the world of programming. Most of the most widely used paradigms are object-oriented programming languages.

2. Fast and efficient:

New languages ​​like java and python offer more functionality than c programming languages, but the additional processing in these languages ​​effectively reduces throughput rates. The C programming language, which is a mid-level language, provides programmers with access to direct operations using computer hardware, but high-level languages ​​do not allow it. This is one of the reasons why C is considered the first choice to start learning a programming language. Static writing languages ​​are faster because they are faster than dynamic writing languages.

3. Modularity:

This programming language van does little by itself. The library has most of its capabilities. The C language has its own library to solve these common problems, and you can use the header files stored in the library to use specific functions.

4. Static writing:

The C programming language is a static writing language. That is, the variable type is checked at compile time, but not at run time. This means that every time the programmer enters a program, he must mention the type of variable used.

5. General-purpose languages:

From system programming to photo editing software, the C programming language is used in a variety of applications. Some of the common applications in which it is used are:

  • Operating system: Windows, Linux, iOS, Android, OXS
  • Database: PostgreSQL, Oracle, MySQL, MS SQL Server, etc.

6. Intermediate language:

Being an intermediate language, it has a format that combines both assembly language and high-level language functions.

7. Portability:

Programs written in C can be run and compiled on any system without or without changes, so C is generously portable.

8. Easy to expand:

Programs written in C are extensible. This means that if your program is already written, you can add a few more functions and operations.

9. Code reuse, customization and extensions:

Programmers can easily create their own functions. It can be used repeatedly for various purposes. A C program is basically a set of functions. This function is compatible with the “c” library. Functions can be continuously added to the ‘c’ library.

10. Limited number of keywords:

There are only 32 keywords in ‘C’. Ritchie gives 27 keywords. 5 is added by ANSI. The strength of “C” lies in its built-in functions. Unix systems provide several C functions. Some functions are used during operation. Others are specific to that application.

Program Structure of C Programming Language:

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Keywords that use C language:

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Advantages of C Language:

  • A C program is a collection of functions from the C library and it is easy to add functions to the C library.
  • There are some standard features (such as embedded) that you can use to develop your program.
  • Modular construction makes it easy to debug, maintain, and test code.
  • It is a highly portable language and is interoperable.
  • All 32 keywords that exist as part of the built-in function exist in ANSI-C. Besides that, user-created functions are also widely used.
  • This language can be expanded with many other library functions.
  • The modular structure of the programming language makes debugging, testing, and programming the language much easier.

Disadvantages of C Language:

  • C does not provide the concept of object-oriented programming (OOP).
  • C does not provide binding or wrapping of data on a single drive.
  • C does not provide a constructor or destructor.
  • A strict type check is not possible.
  • No runtime verification
  • Also, there is no concept of constructors and destructors.


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